How to recognize high blood pressure and lower it

How to recognize high blood pressure and lower it

Blood pressure disease or the silent killer is known as this is a cardiovascular disorder that affects a large number of people around the world, according to estimates.
78 million Americans suffer from high blood pressure. Approximately 16 million of them remain undiagnosed and undiagnosed; The big problem is that remaining undiagnosed makes treatment difficult, increases the risk of heart attack, heart palpitations, or other serious diseases. For this reason, increasing your knowledge about blood pressure and the factors that reduce it. They are important; While high blood pressure cannot be controlled due to serious life-threatening health problems, stabilize your blood pressure.

How to recognize high blood pressure and lower it

High blood pressure and low blood pressure ranges

Blood pressure is measured by a blood pressure device (sphygmomanometer). The blood pressure device consists of an air pump, a pressure gauge and a rubber cuff. This device measures blood pressure in millimeters of mercury (mmHg). The cuff of the sphygmomanometer is placed on the upper arm and is inflated by pressing the air pump, blocking the blood flow in the main artery of the arm. The arm should be placed at the side of the body and at the level of the heart, and the pressure of the cuff should be gradually released so that the cuff is slowly deflated. As the pressure decreases, the doctor listens for the pulse using a stethoscope placed over the artery in front of the elbow or feels the pulse with an electronic sphygmomanometer. The pressure at which the doctor (or machine) hears the first heartbeat from the artery is the systolic pressure (top number). As the cuff pressure decreases, eventually the heartbeat stops, the last sound the doctor (or machine) hears is the diastolic pressure (the bottom number).

  • low blood pressure
    Systolic pressure less than 90 mm Hg (or 25 mm Hg lower than normal pressure).
  • Blood pressure before reaching the high limit
    Systolic blood pressure 120 to 139 mm or diastolic blood pressure 80 to 89 mm Hg.
  • Step 1: Increased blood pressure
    Systolic blood pressure 140 to 159 mm Hg (permanently) or diastolic blood pressure 90 to 99 mm Hg (permanently).
  • Step 2: Increased blood pressure
    Systolic blood pressure of 160 mmHg or more (persistently) or Systolic blood pressure 100 mm Hg or more (permanently).
How to recognize high blood pressure and lower it
Sphygmomanometer for measuring blood pressure on medical background

Causes of high blood pressure

  • Family history of high blood pressure
  • Age over 60 years
  • Suffering from a great degree of stress, anger or violence
  • Overweight or obesity
  • In addition to tobacco products, having a diet with a high percentage of saturated fat.
  • Drinking too much alcohol and smoking
  • Eating foods full of sodium
  • Having a sedentary lifestyle
  • having diabetes

How to recognize high blood pressure and lower it

Complications of high blood pressure

Excessive pressure on the walls of arteries caused by high blood pressure can damage blood vessels and body organs. Uncontrolled high blood pressure can lead to the following complications:

  • Heart attack or stroke: High blood pressure can cause hardening and thickening of the arteries (atherosclerosis), which can lead to heart attack, stroke, or other complications.
  • Aneurysm: High blood pressure can weaken and bulge blood vessels and cause aneurysm formation. Aneurysm rupture can be life threatening.
  • Heart failure: To pump blood against the high pressure in the veins, the heart has to work harder, which causes the walls of the heart chambers to thicken (left ventricular hypertrophy). Eventually, the thickened muscle has trouble meeting the body's needs, which can lead to Heart failure.
  • Weakening and narrowing of blood vessels in the kidneys: It can prevent the normal functioning of organs.
  • Thickening, narrowing or tearing of blood vessels in the eye: It can lead to vision loss.
  • Metabolic syndrome: This syndrome includes a series of metabolic disorders in the body, including increased waist circumference, high triglycerides, decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL or good cholesterol), high blood pressure, and high insulin levels. These conditions increase the risk of diabetes, heart disease and stroke.
  • Memory problem: Uncontrolled high blood pressure may affect a person's ability to think, remember, and learn. Difficulty with memory or understanding concepts is more common in people with high blood pressure.
  • Dementia: Narrowing or blockage of arteries can restrict blood flow to the brain and lead to a certain type of dementia. A stroke that stops blood flow to the brain can also cause vascular dementia.

How to recognize high blood pressure and lower it

Factors and risk factors affecting high blood pressure

High blood pressure is influenced by several different things, which means that there are many factors and risk factors that cause high blood pressure with different effects, which will be mentioned below:

  • Age: Increasing age increases the risk of developing high blood pressure. By the age of 64, high blood pressure is more common in men. After the age of 65, women are more likely to develop high blood pressure. Although high blood pressure is common in adults, children may also be at risk. In some children, high blood pressure is caused by kidney or heart problems. But in more children, unhealthy lifestyle habits such as unhealthy diet, obesity and lack of exercise contribute to high blood pressure.
  • race: High blood pressure is more common among African Americans, often developing at a younger age than among whites. Serious complications of high blood pressure, such as stroke, heart attack, and kidney failure, are also more common in African Americans.
  • Overweight or obesity: As the weight increases, the body needs more blood to supply oxygen and nutrients to the tissues. An increase in intravascular blood volume increases the pressure on the arterial walls.
  • Physical inactivity: People who are inactive have a higher heart rate. A higher heart rate means that the heart is working harder and contracting more, thus increasing the force exerted on the arteries. Lack of physical activity also increases the risk of being overweight.
  • Use of tobacco: Smoking and tobacco use temporarily raise blood pressure, but the chemicals in tobacco can damage artery walls. This damage causes narrowing of the arteries and increases the risk of heart diseases. Exposure to secondhand smoke can also increase the risk of heart disease.
  • Excessive salt consumption or salt sensitivity: The presence of excessive sodium in the diet can cause the accumulation of fluids in the blood vessels and, as a result, increase blood pressure. This condition occurs in certain populations, such as the elderly, African Americans, obese people, or people with renal (kidney) failure.
  • Lack of potassium in the diet: Potassium helps balance intracellular sodium. If there is not enough potassium in the diet and a person suffers from potassium deficiency, a lot of sodium accumulates in the blood and absorbs water, causing an increase in the intravascular volume and, as a result, an increase in blood pressure.
  • Excessive consumption of alcohol: Drinking too much alcohol can damage the heart. Consuming more than one drink per day for women and more than two drinks per day for men may affect blood pressure.
  • Stress: High levels of stress can lead to a temporary increase in blood pressure. If you relax by overeating, using tobacco, or drinking alcohol, you will only face an increase in blood pressure.
  • Pregnancy: Sometimes pregnancy causes high blood pressure.
  • Genetic predisposition to high blood pressure: People who have one or two parents with high blood pressure are twice as likely to develop high blood pressure than the general population.
  • Atherosclerosis: Stiffness or lack of elasticity in arteries that leads to increased resistance in small vessels (capillaries). This increased stiffness of peripheral arteries is seen in elderly people who are obese and do not exercise and have a high salt intake.
  • Some chronic diseases: Diseases such as kidney disease, diabetes and sleep apnea increase the risk of high blood pressure.

How to recognize high blood pressure and lower it

Management and treatment of high blood pressure

  • Changing the way of life
  • Quit Smoking
  • Weight loss (if overweight)
  • Regular exercise: Sports and physical activity helps to reduce blood pressure by reducing weight and reducing blood sugar and other complications of obesity. Consult your doctor before starting any new exercise program. Sports activities such as walking, running, cycling or swimming for 30 to 45 minutes a day can help lower blood pressure.
  • enough sleep
  • Reducing stress
  • Regular control of blood pressure at home
  • Avoiding alcohol consumption
  • Treatment of the underlying disease: Treating underlying diseases that cause high blood pressure also improves high blood pressure. Diseases such as: renal artery stenosis, pheochromocytoma (rare adrenal gland cancer), congestive heart failure, diabetes, obesity
  • Follow the diet: A low-sodium and low-fat diet, limiting caffeine intake, reducing salt intake, consuming potassium-rich foods (if you have kidney failure, potassium-rich foods may be harmful to you), consuming fruits and vegetables, consuming low-fat dairy products, and Lean meat

drug therapy

There are different types of blood pressure medications, and according to the patient's condition, the doctor will prescribe the most suitable ones. Medicines such as:

  • Chlorthalidone
  • Hydrochlorothiazide (Hydrochlorothiazide)
  • Lisinopril (lisinopril)
  • Benazepril (Benazepril)
  • Captopril
  • Candesartan
  • Losartan
  • Amlodipine (Amlodipine)
  • Diltiazem
  • Doxazosin (Doxazosin)
  • Prazosin
  • Carvedilol
  • Labetalol
  • Acebutolol
  • Atenolol
  • Spironolactone (spironolactone or aldactone)
  • Eplerenone
  • Aliskiren (Aliskiren)
  • Hydralazine
  • Minoxidil (minoxidil)
  • Quanfacine
  • Methyldopa (methyldopa)
How to recognize high blood pressure and lower it

Suitable diet for people with high blood pressure

One of the easiest ways to treat high blood pressure and prevent possible complications is your diet. What you take can help relieve or eliminate high blood pressure.
Here are some of the most common dietary recommendations for people with high blood pressure.

Eat less meat and more herbs

A plant-based diet is an easy way to increase fiber and reduce sodium and unsaturated and trans fat from dairy and meat foods. Increase the consumption of fruits, vegetables, leafy vegetables and whole grains. Instead of red meat, choose healthy low-fat proteins such as fish, chicken or tofu.

Reduce the amount of sodium in your diet

People with high blood pressure and those at risk for heart disease may not need to keep their sodium intake between 1,500 mg and 2,300 mg per day. Most of the time, the best way to reduce sodium is to cook fresh foods. Avoid eating restaurant foods or prepared foods, which are generally very high in sodium.

Minimize the consumption of sweets

Sugary foods and drinks have only calories, but no nutritional value. If you want something sweet, try fresh fruit or some dark chocolate that isn't too sweet. Valid research sources show that regular consumption of dark chocolate lowers blood pressure.

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